The steeplechase is an obstacle race in athletics, which derives its name from the steeplechase in horse racing. The foremost version of the event is the 3000 meters steeplechase. The 2000 meters steeplechase is the next most common distance.
3000 Meters Steeplechase
The 3000 meters steeplechase or 3000-meter steeplechase is the most common distance for the steeplechase in track and field. It is an obstacle race over the distance of the 3000 meters, which derives its name from the horse racing steeplechase.
A 3,000 meters steeplechase is defined in the rulebook as having 28 barriers and 7 water jumps. A 2,000 meters steeplechase has 18 barriers and 5 water jumps. Since the water jump is never on the track oval, a steeplechase “course” is never a perfect 400 meters lap. Instead the water jump is placed inside the turn, shortening the lap, or outside the turn, lengthening the lap. The start line moves from conventional starting areas in order to compensate for the different length of lap. When the water jump is inside, the 3,000 start line is on the backstretch (relative to the steeplechase finish). When the water jump is outside, the 3,000 start line is on the home stretch. The 2,000 start line reverses that pattern and uses 5/7 the amount of compensation.
The steeplechase begins with a standing start. The start command is, “On your marks.” Runners may not touch the ground with their hands during the start. As in all races – except those in the decathlon and heptathlon – runners are permitted one false start but are disqualified on their second false start.
The 3000-meter event includes 28 hurdle jumps and seven water jumps. The jumps begin after the runners pass the finish line for the first time. There are five jumps in each of the final seven laps, with the water jump as the fourth. The jumps are evenly distributed throughout the track. Each runner must go over or through the water pit and must jump each hurdle. As in all races, the event ends when a runner’s torso (not the head, arm or leg) crosses the finish line?
The origins of the game can be traced back to the earliest civilizations of the world, but the modern game of field hockey was developed in the British Isles. The modern game was started in England in the mid 1800’s and the first formal field hockey club the ‘Blackheath Football and Hockey Club’ was formed in 1861.
Hockey is a popular game possibly depicted on walls in Egypt. Drawings of what looks to be hockey have been found in an Egyptian tomb that was 4000 years old. Hockey is a popular game in India and Pakistan. It was played for hundreds of years before other countries like England modernized it. Hockey is similar to an ancient game played in Scotland called shinty. Hockey is often played at schools in the UK but its origins are unclear. Later came ice hockey.
There was a time when field hockey was a contact sport. As years passed and rules changed, however, field hockey started to evolve into the modern game is it is today and stick skills became the focal point. Physical contact fell out of the equation and the sport became much more technical.
For the purpose of adding excitement to the game, the International Hockey Federation has altered rules to make the game faster. Below is a simplified version of field hockey’s rules that will help you become acclimated to the game.
Field Hockey games begin with a coin toss by the umpire. The home team gets to choose whether it wants heads or tails. The team that wins the toss gets its choice of either possession of the ball at the start of the game or the side of the field it would like to defend.
Each team puts 11 players on the field at a time — ten regular players and one goalie. Five substitution players remain on the sideline. In rare circumstances, a team will choose to pull its goalie off the field in exchange for an extra field player. The players on the sideline can be used as substitutes for any of the players on the field at any given time. The number of substitutions made is up to the umpire.
Positions in field hockey are not absolute. Generally, though, teams arrange players into defense, midfield, and attack. Most teams choose to have a goalie, but a goalie is not required. Many teams include a single sweeper who acts as a last line of defense in front of the goalie. The minimum number of players needed for a game to be considered a regulation game is nine, including the goalie. Depending on the division and/or league, however, this number can vary.
To have goalkeeping privileges, a player must wear a helmet and a jersey that is a different color than that of her teammates. A full protected goalie cannot leave her side’s defensive 25-yard line during play, unless the goalie is defending a penalty stroke.
Substitute goalkeepers — or “kickers” — do not wear the full goalie equipment; they only wear a helmet, different colored shirt, and sometimes goalie leg pads. Kickers are field players that play goalie only when their team does not have one, or if the team wants an additional player instead of a goalie. They can leave their side’s defensive end, but cannot use their feet or hands outside the 25-yard mark.
Stick Basics & Handling
The head of a hockey stick is hooked. The right-hand side of the stick is rounded, while the left-hand side is flat. The ball can be played on the flat, left-hand side of the stick, or on its edge; it cannot be played on the rounded side. This is natural for right-handed players and unnatural for left-handed players. Unfortunately for lefties, left-handed sticks are not allowed to be used in games.
To make a legal hit to the right without using the rounding side of the stick, a player must turn the stick over the ball and use the flat side. Taking a hit by reversing the stick head — turning the handle approximate 180 degrees over the ball — and striking the ball with a left-to-right swing with the flat side of the stick is called a “reverse hit.”
Keeping the ball under close control is called dribbling, or stick handling. Dribbling is used when running with possession of the ball. It helps a player maneuver past opposing players for a chance to shoot on goal. Other essential skills for playing field hockey are the ability to control, pass, push, stop, and shoot the ball with your stick.
Field players are not allowed to use their feet, or any other body part, to control the ball. If the ball hits a player’s foot, the umpire will either award the other team a free hit or let the game continue if the other team gains an advantage. Only the goalkeeper is allowed to use her hands, feet, and body to stop or strike the ball.
The ball is allowed to be lifted in the air as long as the referee does not consider the play to be “dangerous.” The referee will make that call if the ball could potentially hit or injure another player. The general rule is that the ball should not be lifted above the knee within five meters of another player. An exception to this rule is when the ball is raised by using a scooping or long-pushing action of the stick, or when there are no players in the same proximity as the ball. The ball cannot be hit into the air unless it is a direct shot on goal.
There are three different ways to score a goal in field hockey:
- Field goal
- Penalty corner
- Penalty stroke
A goal can only be scored if the shot is taken within the “shooting circle,” a semi-circular area in front of the opponent’s goal. The shooting circle is also known as the “dee” or “D” for the defensive team. The ball must be touched by a player on either team inside the circle for it to count as a goal.
A penalty corner is awarded when the defensive team breaks certain rules inside the D, or when a defender commits an intentional offense outside the circle but within the 25 yard (23 meters) area.
Play is stopped for a penalty corner to allow time for both teams to set up its respective attack and defense positions. Defense is allowed five defenders, including the goalie on the end line.
One attacker stands on the end line 11 yards (10 meters) away from the goal and pushes the ball out to the attackers on top of the shooting circle who are waiting to take a shot on goal. The rest of the defensive team must stay behind the center line until the ball is pushed out by the offensive player.
In order for a goal to count during a penalty corner, the ball must travel outside the shooting circle before an offender can take the shot. The receiver will then push the ball back into the circle for a shot to be taken. The shot has to be taken inside the marked circle for the goal to count.
The first shot is a hard hit on goal. If the ball is lifted in the air above the backboard, the goal will not count. The only exception to this rule is if the first shot is a “scoop” or a “flick” — shots that are lifted in the air with a long scooping or pushing action. On the international level, the “drag flick” is the most popular type of lifted shot on short corners.
Teams generally have a set play for short corners. A short corner is the best opportunity to score in field hockey, because the offensive team attacks with twice as many players as the defensive team.
A penalty stroke is a single shot taken on goal by an offensive player chosen by her team. The goalkeeper is the only opposing player that can defend this shot. A stroke may be awarded for a number of reasons. The most common reason for a stroke to be taken is when a defender commits a foul that directly prevents a goal from being scored.
The shot is taken from a spot referred to as either the stroke mark or p-flick. It is located seven yards (6.4 meters) directly in front of the goal. Game play is stopped during the penalty stroke and all players must stand outside the circle, 25 yards (23 meters) away. The player must push, flick or scoop the ball and is permitted to raise the ball to any height. When the stick makes contact with the ball, it should make no distinct hitting noise; otherwise the umpire can negate the penalty stroke.
Free hits are awarded throughout the main part of the field for general offenses by either team. The most common fouls that lead to free hits are:
- Obstructing an opponent from playing the ball
- Interfering with the stick or body when tackling
- Kicking the ball
- Playing the ball dangerously (including lifting the ball)
In a free hit, the ball is given to the fouled team where the offense took place. The ball is placed on the ground and a player will re-start the action by passing it to a teammate, hitting the ball forward or backward, or through a self-pass (either by dribbling the ball or hitting it into space). All opposing players must stand at least five yards from this player until the ball is put into play.
If the ball is within the 25-yard area of a goal, the ball cannot be directly hit into the circle. The ball must travel five yards by dribbling or passing before it can be hit into the circle and shot at goal.
Obstruction is a huge part of field hockey and is a direct contribution to the high frequency of whistle blows during games. In the most general terms, obstruction is called when the ball is shielded from an opposing player who is trying to get the ball. Players often use their own bodies or sticks to block the ball, but third party obstruction is also called. Third party obstruction is called when a player runs between her teammate (who has possession of the ball) and an opponent trying to get the ball, essentially block the opponent’s path.
An international match consists of two periods of 35 minutes and a halftime interval of five minutes.
The team that scores the most goals within this time is the winner. According to the International Hockey Federation, if no goals are scored during regulation time, the game will end in a tie (or draw). Exceptions to this rule can vary league to league. In some leagues and at some tournaments, an extra period known as “overtime” will be played if the game is tied at the end of regulation. There are several variations of overtime depending on the specific league rules (check your local league rules for more information). These variations include:
- Regular overtime (two 10–minute periods): The team with the most goals at the end of overtime is declared the winner.
- Sudden-death overtime (two 10–minute periods): The team to score first wins the game.
- Seven-aside overtime (two 10–minute periods): Seven players from each team (instead of the regular 11 players) are chosen to play in overtime. The teams play a sudden-death format.
- Penalty-stroke competition: Each team chooses five players to take a shot on the other team’s goalie. The team with the most goals out of each of its five shots is declared the winner. If the shots result in a tie, the teams will participate in sudden-death penalty shots (the teams alternate taking penalty shots on the goal; the first team to score is the winner).
There are two umpires (or “referees”) in each game. Each umpire controls half of the field, although general play in the midfield can be called by either umpire.
An umpire can give a card to any player who has commits a repeated offense. There are three types of cards:
- Green card: Warning for the player to stop whatever she is doing.
- Yellow card: Temporarily suspends the player for a minimum of five minutes of playing time.
- Red card: Permanently suspends the player from the match.
If a player is suspended temporarily or permanently, her team plays with fewer players.
The whistle is the umpire’s tool to enforce the rules of the game. The umpire blows the whistle to:
- Start the first and second half of the game
- Start a bully
- Call a foul
- Start and end a penalty stroke
- Indicate a goal
- Re-start a match after it’s been stopped
- Stop a match to substitute players into the game
- Stop the match for an injury
The umpire uses the whistle to keep the game moving smoothly. The umpire will also use hand signals to indicate the specifics of the call.
If you know the rules, you will have a fun and clean field hockey game. Field hockey is based on skill, not force. Being able to navigate through the field without committing any fouls will result in less time stoppage for penalties.
Now that you have the basics down, you’re ready to start playing some hockey. The rules listed above, however, are simplified versions of the rules. For more detailed information, please check with your local league’s rulebook. Or, visit the websites listed below for the official rules:
Even if you know the rules of hockey and the different ways you can shoot or dribble the ball, you cannot start playing hockey until you’ve got your hockey equipment! In field hockey, there’s a fair amount of equipment you need to get beforehand such as guards to ensure your safety.
The type of hockey equipment needed differs if you’re playing as a goalie. But if you’ve not decided which positions in field hockey to take up, then you should probably stick to getting the standard equipment.
Your hockey stick is like your weapon on the battlefield. After choosing the most suitable hockey stick for yourself, you will learn to use it and after a while, be so comfortable with it that it becomes a part of you.
The type of shoes you should get depends on the type of surface you’re going to play on. If you’re playing on grass field then cleats are the most suitable as their soles have large studs hence allowing for better grip, quicker cuts and faster transitions. If you’re playing on artificial turf, you might want to invest some money into turf shoes which have smaller studs, perfect for gripping on the artificial turf. But if you’re playing indoors, you can just get some running shoes which have grooves on their soles for maximum grip on smooth surfaces.
Investing in a mouth guard is a good idea because you wouldn’t want to burn a hole in your wallet, paying for your dental treatment should a ball hit you in the face.
When you play field hockey, your shins take the most beating from balls and sticks. It is thus important for you to protect your shins from getting bruised
Socks and Rash Guards
Socks are pretty common sense. If you refuse to wear socks then, brace yourself for the blisters. Rash guards on the other hand, are optional. They go under your shin guards and protect your shin from getting constantly rubbed against the shin guards.
A stick bag is optional too but they’re definitely going to be convenient if you’re going to be carrying multiple sticks at one go.
Electrical tape is really useful and if you tape them to the bottom of your stick, it’d protect your stick from dents and wear and tear! If you’re a beginner, taping the bottom of your stick would also aid in stopping the ball.
If you’re going to be using your hockey stick regularly, then you would realize that the grip at the top wears easily. Buying and replacing grips would be common once you become a hockey player.
Finally, you can’t play field hockey without a ball! But we are putting this under personal equipment too because you should have a personal ball for practice. if you’re a beginner, get a turf ball to practice instead of the regular practice ball. Field hockey balls are rubber-like, hard and dense and they travel quickly.
Extra Equipment for the Goalie
Being a goalie is demanding in the sense that you’d have to get a whole lot more equipment for your protection. These can end up costing a bomb when you add them all up but hey, you can’t put a price on passion right?
The helmet protects your head and face from injury. When you’re buying a helmet, the most important thing you should take note of is that it fits your head comfortably.
The throat protector wraps around your neck and is essential in protecting the goalies throat against fast moving balls.
The chest pad protects the goalie’s torso and is padded in front.
Arms and Elbow Protector
Your body armor wouldn’t be complete without your arm and elbow protector. They keep your arms and elbows safely padded just in case the ball decides to hit you there. Though you don’t often get hit in those areas, it’s always better to be safe than sorry!
Right and Left Hand Protector
The right hand protector is hard and rounded, designed to fit around the stick. On other hand, the left hand protector is flat and stiff to enable the goalie to stop lifted shots.
Protecting your lower body is also important for a goalie. The goalie pants provide extra protection to the upper legs, hips and groin from shots.
If you’re a goalie, you’re going to appreciate the groin protector.
Although the goalie pants protect your upper legs, it doesn’t do much for your lower legs. This is where the leg guards come in handy. They cover all the way from the top of your feet to the top of your knee.
Kickers also protect your legs and shin. They usually come with the leg guards as a set.
Once you’ve got all the equipment that you need, it’s time that you head out to the field and practice! Whether you want to do some shooting drills or dribbling drills, always remember that practice makes perfect!
The barrier beam is 4” x 4” square steel tubing covered with synthetic track material. Base legs have pull pin design for easy adjustability between three heights: 30”, 33”, and 36”. Powder coated for durable finish. Meets NCAA specifications. IAAF Certified.